#PSinnnovate16: The Art of Change: Innovating in Australia’s National Collecting Institutions

– Good morning everyone.

Thank you for your attendance here today.

My name is Simon Kelly and on behalf of Collections andCultural Heritage branch of the Department ofCommunications in the Arts, I'd like to welcome you all to this event and thank you for your attendance.

I would also like to thank those here in the room this morning and those who are streaming this event from across the Australian Public Service.

I'd like to acknowledgethe traditional owners of the land on which wemeet and pay my respect to their elders, past and present.

I would also like to extend that respect to other Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander people present today.

We are very fortunateto have representatives from some of our nationalcultural institutions with us this morningto talk about the ways of connecting our extraordinarynational collections with audiences throughthe digital economy.

Our speakers are from the Australian National Maritime Museum, National Museum of Australia, and National Library of Australia and I've no doubt they couldeach easily fill an hour or so.

We have Lynda Kelly from the Australian National Maritime Museum in Sydney talking to us about digitalaccess to the collections and how this works witheducation and learning.

Mr.

Robert Burnsley from theNational Museum of Australia, who will talk to us aboutKasparov and Chesster the museum's resident robots and Sarah Schindler fromNational Library of Australia, who will talk about thelibrary's tribe application.

So without further ado, I'dlike to welcome Lynda Kelly.

(audience applauds) – Hello and thank you for having me and I too would like to pay my respects to the traditional owners of this land and the elders, past and present.

Again, thank you for having me.

My job at the National Museum of, National (laughs) MaritimeMuseum, is the head of learning, so what that covers is the two functions, the formal education componentand the public programs and family programs that we do, but it's interestingfor me, having come from a state institution toa national institution, to think about, well, what does being a national institution mean and particularly for us at the maritime, it's really, well, what doesa national institution mean when you're not actuallybased in Canberra, so it's kind of a goodthing 'cause sometimes we get a bit forgottenabout, so we can do stuff and sometimes it's a bad thing 'cause we get a bit forgottenabout and we can't do stuff, so it's a very interesting time for us.

We've also decided toincorporate strategic planning to make more of a national focus because we see that that'sa really good fit for us and we run quite a largeprogram called MAPS where we actually supportsmall maritime museums in regional communities indoing education programs or exhibitions or any kindof thing that they wanna do, conservation, collectionmanagement, that kind of stuff, so we feel very stronglyabout our national remit and that's part of whatI'll be talking about today.

Just wait for the clicker.

It's clicked down.

I was just gonna go backto my original slide because that's the view from our office, so just to kind of get you located.

We're right on Darling Harbour, beautiful view exceptBarangaroo's now been built, so it's kind of, I don't getas good a view as I used to do.

Anyway, I just want to talkabout audience for a minute because also a part ofmy remit at the National is audience research and I'vebeen an audience researcher for a very long time,for about 25 years now, longer than probably some of you have been born, but that's okay.

I just want to bring thisback to the audience and what we museums andcultural institutions are facing today is avery different audience than when I started out back in 1987 and it's an audience now thatis very much switched on, engaged, really wants to be involved with a museum, with an organization.

They're very fickle.

They're very picky and it's also very hardto get their attention and people always ask me about, "Well, what's the biggestcompetitor to a museum "or a gallery or a cultural institution?" And I always say, "Well, it's actually "people's time and attention.

"That's what we're competing with.

" So, we've got visitors thatare all over the place.

They're doing alldifferent kinds of things and they're also using lotsof different technologies now and I'll get to that in a minute.

Just want to talk about teachers.

That's a big audience, obviously.

Teachers, in terms of deciding whether they actually come to a physical visit, but also now more virtually and I don't know if theothers will comment on this, but we're also getting moreand more teachers locally, close to the museum that are saying, "We actually want a virtual excursion, "more digital experience because "we don't really want to come "because we can't get outof school, it's too hard.

" So, I also had done a lot of work with teachers over the years and I call them the ulti, they're the ultimatemulti-platform visitor because teachers are on somany different platforms and that's just from aseries of focus groups I ran.

That's just a whole list of things that they told me when I said, "Well, what tech do you use? "What sites do you go to?" And it was all of this,so what we're doing at the maritime museumis thinking a lot about, okay, what's, how can we actually get our message out to teachers and one of the things thatI've been pushing with my team and pushing in our sector is this idea of third party providers and I don't know if you've heard of the horizons report that comes out every year.

Its museums edition makesyou on the board of that and it just has the key trends for education and third party providers.

It was actually seen as, not a problem, but as a potential competitor, but I actually see them asa potential collaborator because if someone like Google or Apple, Microsoft, whoever, arealready out there providing and they've already gota ready-made audience, then why not work with them? Google in particular,they're just about to launch a big program that I can'treally talk too much about, but just bear in mind that they will be getting into many schools across Australia and that they've gottheir eye set on that, that particular education market, so something to watch out for.

Then, we come to students.

So, as students today, I call them, again, multi-tasking students.

Probably 10 years ago, if youhad a student in your class or in your museum doing something, doing three different things, then you'd be saying, "Well, now actually, "you've got to be focused on this.

" But nowadays, students are multi-taskers.

We're all multi-taskers, really.

We're multi-screenersand we're multi-taskers, so we've got students that arecoming to our physical sites or we're going to them digitally and they've got a lot ofknowledge and understanding, but they've also got many things that they're juggling at the time and this is one of my favorite things that we've got to think aboutand I say to people is, well, and I used to say to my children that in five years time,you'll be doing jobs that haven't been invented yet, so it's about, well, what us,as collection institutions and in our education programs, what we are equipping students for is not just knowledge-based anymore.

It's about skills-based and how to actually get on in this world.

That brings to me whatwe're thinking about at the National MaritimeMuseum is our kind of focus and we're very much asocial history place, a navy place, a boat place,but we've got a massive eclectic collection, so wedo cover a lot of areas.

We've had a history focus in the past and now of course like everybody,we move more towards STEM.

It is an important thing, but it's also something that we know thatwe can get funding for, so we know that sponsorsand philanthropic trusts are very interested in STEM education, so we're moving towards that.

As I said, we're taking an onsite focus.

It's important because notonly do we get revenue, but actually, having a lot of students, and other museums wouldknow this during the week when it's a bit quiet, reallybrings the place alive, so we're thinking about our onsite visits are still important, but we're focusing more on the national.

I'll talk about two projects that we're doing in that area there.

As we know, we're goingfrom analogue to digital.

People are expecting digital experiences, but that digital isn'tthe be-all and end-all.

I actually write a blogcalled Museums in the Digital and I'll tweet that out becauseI've written a lot about postage of visitors generally and what all of my research is showing and how people want toengage digitally or not and it's interesting the or not because that's often overlooked and that's very important too.

As I said, going to third party platforms, so we've, yes, we can provide programs and we can provide reallygood resource material, but then you hand that over and I'll give you Apple as an example.

We got an Apple distinguished educator.

They run a program and he's one of them and he comes in and I'mgiving him some money and say, "Here's some resources.

"Turn it into, put it out in store," so he just does that becausehe knows how to do it and it's a very simple process for him.

He tests it with his students.

He puts it in the thing that we want it and bang, we're thereand we can actually then have that as a supporting program to see our traveling exhibitions because we don't need to travel resources.

We just got it already in the Apple Store.

We're moving towards an indigenous focus.

I mean, for us, it's interesting.

I was at the Australian Museum and indigenous was veryimportant there, as it should be, and it was a little less-so recognised at the maritime museum, but we're certainly now building that up.

We've got two indigenous curators now, looking to get someindigenous education people in and it's a cross-curriculum priority, of course, in the national curriculum, so it's something thatwe can really build on.

The museum is workingwith the national museum on the 250th anniversary of Cook arriving and when I did a lot of audience research with people about whatthey think about Cook, it was like, boring, yawn, but actually, we're interestedin the indigenous story, so I'm finding myself in20s of audience research that Australians are becoming much more interested in this kind of topic.

Another focus we got and this is really particular tous because of our site, so we've got an idea ofbeing direct, course, being China ready and whatdoes that actually mean for a museum to be China ready? Well, it means many, many things and for us in the education field, it means that we got an opportunity now to provide programs for traveling Chinese, Korean, and Japanese students and we can make a bit of money out of it, so that's a really cool thing, so that's really ourpriority, so now, refocusing.

So, two quick projects I'll talk about.

One is called The Voyage.

The Voyage is a game,it's an educational game.

It was built Roar Films in Tasmania and it was funded by Screen Australia and a few other places, ourselves included and The Voyage is youtake on the persona of the surgeon general and your brief is to getas many healthy convicts to Van Diemen's Land as you can and it's very important because you actually got paid based on the number of healthy convicts you brought and you also got land grants and it was a very big thing for you to do that successfullyand a lot of people that actually built thecolony were surgeon generals, so it's a really greatgame and since we launched, we've had over 25,000 players.

We have a 55% return rateand a 25 minute average play, so we know that those kids are playing and enjoying that game.

We get a lot of feedback and we did a lot of research with Griffith University.

There was a gaming expert there, did a lot of research inthe development of the game and we know that it works really well and people are loving it, so I urge you to get on and play thegame, it's pretty cool.

This is just a letter that was sent to our chairman, Mr.

Dexter and it was from a year five student from a primary schoolup in the North Shore and she was, the whole class were tasked with writing toMr.

Dexter, our chairman, because his grandson goes there and that's the connection there.

Actually, our chairmanwas saying to me though, he really dislikes thegame because his son now, his grandson now won't go fishing with him because he's too busy playing the game.

(everyone laughs)Sounds like.

But this is the kind of thingthat they were talking about, that they really like the game, but there's too many catch the rats and there's not enough about what happened to the Aboriginal people and for me as a researcherand as an educator, it's like, wow, these kids arereally thinking about that, so we got a lot of resourcesonline for the game and we actually got Roar Film to make a couple of indigenous resources because even though thegame doesn't cover that, we were still getting askedabout, well, what happens? So, we've got a two plustwo kind of different opinions about what happened there, so as I said, I'll tweetthe link out to that as well and that's just some figuresthat I talked about before and the final one is the onethat we're very excited about and that we just gotCatalyst funding for this, so thank you to allthose people in the room, anybody who was involved in Catalyst.

So, we got $230,000 toactually deliver this project over the next two years and what this was was it was a two year, pretty much, collaboration with CSIRO andthey came to us with an idea and when someone comes to us and says, "Wouldn't it be cool if?" Our ears prick up and say, "Yes, okay.

"Let's work with you guys,we like doing cool stuff.

" So, they came to us.

They'd been workingwith the National Museum on the robot program and oneof them had this idea, said, "Well, actually, what if we actually "took the same technology,put it on the Endeavor, "which is our flagship object, "and we can actually beam kids "into the Endeavor and have a lesson.

" So, what I'll do is I'll just show this and then that will be the end of mine.

This just explains quitewell what the program is.

(soft music) It's one of those sleek CSIRO videos.

(laughs) Sorry.

(jovial music) – Today was actually really, really fun.

– Our class went in and we did a tour of the Endeavor replica.

– It was live.

There was tour guides thatwere showing us around.

We could see her and from our laptops, we could control what we were looking at.

– She took us around, asked us questions.

– And then she couldturn around the tablet and focus it on different things and so, we could zoom in a bit more.

– The Panamoz system is,it's a system to enable people to do remote tours of the Endeavor, so what we use is panoramic cameras that enable the remote visitorsto look all around them while at the same time, the educator, who's leading their experience, has an iPad that enables them to directly talk to the visitors and interact with the visitors.

– Some of the coolthings about this project is the fact that not every person feels comfortable going below, but also the fact that some people live a long way away from Sydney.

Not everybody lives in Sydney.

– One of the strengths of the system is really the interactivity between the educator and the students.

They can see the educator and the educator can see and hear them.

They can look around.

– I'll just leave itthere because there's, there's a little bit more, butyou kinda get the gist of it.

So, part of the Catalystgrant is to actually deliver more programs across Australia, but also to look at, and it's, it was an NBN program, sowe can deliver to high NBN, but what we're also doing is looking at, okay, what if they don't have high NBN? How can we work with that andhave the similar experience? So, that's what the grant's really about and that's really all I want to say.

Thank you.

(audience applauds) – Thank you very much.

Thanks, Lynda, that wasvery exciting actually.

I love to see that thetechnology that's being used at the museum being used, being refined and advanced with extra features.

So, I would think that most Commonwealth cultural institutions, which are mainly located here in Canberra, apart from the Maritime museum in Sydney, probably all share the same aim, which is to get ourprograms and our content and our exhibitions outside of the walls of our institutions and outside of the confines of the city of Canberra and especially into our rural, regional, and remote areas of Australia.

Digital platforms, whetherthey're mature ones or emerging ones, oftenallow this regional delivery of content to be moreefficient and more effective than a previous model,a slightly old model, of our outreach, which often involved physically traveling ourexhibitions around the country.

In the early days of digital,we probably focus more on bringing audiences to our websites.

That was the key aim, but more recently, social media platforms have led the way in developing channelsthat are personalized and where users can curatetheir own information feeds, where they can interact directly with a cultural institution, museum, library, and they can also interact and converse witheach other in real time.

At the national museum, we wanna use our collections, ourcontent, and our programs to engage Australians indefining their identity.

Through web, social, and online channels and also through two-wayvideo communications, like video conferencingand web conferencing, we wanna stimulate andengage in conversation in a meaningful dialogue with people and in a way that explores and articulates our national identity.

So, we wanna make visitorsactive participants in shaping the Australian story by providing them with the ability to explore our collections, to challenge us, to change us, and also, to contribute to the museum.

A pathway to achieve this is to experiment with emerging technology and emerging delivery platforms and to work with experiencedtechnology partners, like the CSIRO, to be nimble and to adapt based on our audience's needs,feedback, and evaluation.

One good example of this experimentation and technology partneringis the museum robot program, which we engaged in in 2012together with this department and also with the CSIRO.

This was an NBN demonstration project, along with several others in health and e-commerce and other areas and an aim of the programwas to demonstrate that high speed broadband is not just for faster movie downloads.

Arnold Toynbee's theoryof challenge and response in a historical contextmay be somewhat applicable in digital innovation, as well as in the rise and fall of civilizations.

Digital innovation is driven by challenges and also by opportunities,but it is also sometimes simply through theavailability of funding.

The full cost of developing the robots and the associated technologywas around $3,500,000.

$2,500,000 came from the department and $1,000,000 from CSIRO.

Later on, the running costs of the program were about $300,000 for two years, so you can see that the huge cost of ambitious digital innovation is often in the developmentand the prototyping, not in the actual implementation and it takes funding and seed funding to get these programs off the ground.

In addition to funding,there were many other environmental opportunities that helped the business case of the robots.

One of them was the developing roll out of high speed broadband that actually provides amarket for this sort of service and also, the concurrent implementation of the Australian curriculum.

Finally, educationproducts that we developed and services could be createdonce in a cultural institution and then delivered many timesacross the entire country as students now study the same things in each year of schooling.

Five months after I arrivedat the museum in 2012, this was still how the robots looked.

A laptop on a few milk crates with a few wires coming all over the placesitting on top of a trolley.

However, it all cametogether very well in the end with the technology working and a skin that was designed bya local school student who won a nationalcompetition for the design.

Within a year, the projecthad won an ANZIA award, the Australian New Zealand Internet Award, for internet innovation, which the national library's Troveprogram won the previous year and we also won an internet,an AARNet internet award for technology innovation andit's always pleasing to see public sector innovation being recognized and rewarded in industry forums.

The robot's interface is similar in view and also in controls toGoogle's Street View, which you're probably aware of.

Street View is a static andstored version of a street.

It's captured.

The robots are streaming live panoramic video from our galleries.

Panoramic camera comprises of six cameras and it can be manipulated independently by every user who's on the tour, which may be 15 or 16 different users.

They can all be looking at different things at the same time.

Embedded in the video stream, are about 1,000 digital objects from the national museum's collection that users can access byclicking on active hotspots.

These could be closeupphotos, maps, graphs, movies, text that's not available to an actual visitor, aphysical visitor to the museum.

With the robot, there'stwo types of connections, basically that you can use to approach.

One is as an individual, you can sit at your computer with aheadset and a microphone and you can dial in to the tour and interact directlywith the museum guide.

You can manipulate the camera yourself.

The second model is a classor a whole group experience where one computer dials in, but then an entireaudience can watch the tour as it's moderated by someone who's controlling the cameras at the computer.

Here students from Kiama Public School visit their local library,one of the first digital hubs, where there are banks ofcomputers and high speed internet, whereas here, students from Julian College with an r-net broadband connection experience the whole class model using an interactive whiteboard, which you'll see in a video in a moment.

In fact, we may as well goto the video now, I think.

(light music) I'll just talk over the video as it plays.

So, this is a compilationvideo of a whole range of different tours thatwe've done over time.

You see the robot movesindependently through our galleries.

Some of the technologythat was utilized by CSIRO is laser mapping anarea, so the robot knows wherever it is in the gallery at any time to about one or two centimeters accuracy, so we can send the robot anywhere within the museum and it will go.

There's some interactive polling.

We can ask questionsof the remote audiences and they can click yes, no or answers to multiple choice questions.

Here's some imagescoming up in a slideshow that has further information about the topic that we're looking at.

The flashing blue lights down the bottom indicate some of theobstacle avoidance technology 'cause it's no use runningover little children or falling down the stairs.

That would be a prettyexpensive mistake to make.

You need really good WiFi coverage within the museum because it's a huge amount of data being transmitted.

You can see here these students using the whole class approach, so they can actually manipulatethe cameras and the data with their own hands on screen on behalf of the rest of the audience.

Looking to access data.

Lot of schools have interactive whiteboards like this these days and they are a reallybig advance in education.

There's a little removable camera so that if we go offbook and decide to show a closeup of something that'snot in the scripted tour, we can do that by removing that camera.

Back to the PowerPoint.

Which slide I'm up to.

Okay, one of the things that we're doing at the moment is concentrating more on international connections, so we're looking to use the robot rather than just doing many, many classes, individual classes around the country, we're trying to value add and use the robot more strategically, so we're linking classes across Asia in conjunction with theAsia Education Foundation at the University of Melbourne and the Asia Connects Program from the University of New England, which partners schools right across Asia with Australian schools,so you can see here, these two schools were in Delhi,Delhi public school there.

I think there are about 600 students in that hall at the time and now we're going on a tour at precisely the same timeas a school in Adelaide where I think there were about16 or 17 students (laughs).

Slightly outnumbered, but that sort of simultaneous learningenvironment is really powerful.

The robot can also be used to address really large numbers of people in a really big auditorium,so this is 500 teachers at a Melbourne school aspart of their staff meeting getting a bit of a tour of the museum to familiarize themselveswith the technology.

One of the powerful features of the robot is that you can have multipleand dispersed audiences.

You can have 16 incoming visitors, which might be 16computers all in one room like a computer lab or those banks of computers at the library or there may be 16 individual people situated anywhere around thecountry or around the world.

You can see here in this holiday program that we ran in the early days, we had three digital hubs participating, in turn with Kiama and Hawkesbury, so we had the maximumnumber of 15 computers and the children from all of those sites were interacting at the sametime, asking us questions.

Another powerful example ofthis sort of dispersed audience is a program we did forsome disability audiences.

This particular one, HenryEvans is a mute quadriplegic.

He's a bit of an activistand he has a mission to visit all the greatmuseums of the world digitally from his bed andso, we did a tour for him and two of his friends and so,we linked three continents.

The content was coming out of Canberra.

He was in California in his bedroom.

There was someone in a carefacility in Manchester in the UK and someone in another care facility in Vilnius, in Lithuania.

Each of these users communicatedwith me in a different way, so you can see Henry here using his eyes to spell out questions, which his wife then relayed to me orally.

The person in Vilnius was using his eyes to control a Google Chat andwas sending me his questions, which I was receiving on an iPad and the person in the UK was able to talk, so I was able to interactwith him directly.

These sort of digital technologies break down barriers that we're sometimes not even really aware of.

One other very quick exampleof this dispersed audience and what you can do withthese sort of technologies.

We ran a series of programsto do with the Melbourne Cup where we had contentcoming from curators live at Te Papa Museum in Wellington where they have full lapse skeleton from the national museumwhere we have full lapse heart and the Museum Victoriaor Melbourne Museum, where they have full lapse hide, so the curators were comingin from those exhibits and presenting about thoseexhibits to dispersed audiences, so we had audiences from Tasmania.

Actually, this graph, this map doesn't actually show all the number of audiences 'cause we did this tourthree or four times.

We had audiences of school students and also people atlibraries in New Zealand, Queensland, South Australia,Tasmania, and Victoria.

You can see the library in Queensland up in the left corner there.

Students in New Zealand there as well and this curator coming infrom the Melbourne Museum, able to present to all ofthose dispersed audiences.

It's really powerful and really exciting when you start putting these sort of collaborative projects together.

However, the.

While I probably am a bit of a geek and I'm pretty deeply immersedin digital technologies, I come from a theater background and so I think you can,it's become apparent to me that no matter how good the technology is, the success of these sort of programs actually relies on the human connection.

You need a charismatic,knowledgeable, trustworthy source.

A human connection connecting with these audiences around the country and I think we should never forget that when we're talking aboutdigital innovation.

The human connection is paramount.

Thank you.

(audience applauds) – Morning.

It's my pleasure todayto speak to you about an online service developed by the National Library of Australia.

It's called Trove and for those who are not familiar with it previously, it is quite simply acollection of collections.

It is a portal to the wonderful material that's held, not justby the national library, but by hundreds of cultural institutions and government agencies around Australia, so museums as well aslibraries and galleries and universities and othereducational institutions.

Its purpose, its reason for being is quite simply to connectpeople with that material.

Although there is an incredibly popular and growing body ofdigital content within it, which is directly delivered through Trove, the focus isn't on delivery.

It's on discovery, much likethe other agencies here today and it's undoubtedlysuccessful in that respect.

Tens of thousands of visitors, usually around 70,000 come to the site uniquely every single day.

Most recently, it's been listed as the fourth of the most used online services deliveredby the Commonwealth, so when you think about the big ones, you think about the Bureau of Meteorology, Centrelink, Human Services,and then there's Trove.

That's how popular it is, but Trove isn't just about popularity and the convenience of online access.

It's about more than being able to do your research and find things on your smart phonewhile you're on the bus.

It's about taking these extraordinary Australian collections, particularly, items that are personal oroften ephemeral and unique, these cultural artifacts andturning a spotlight on them.

It's about giving people glimpses into these pieces ofthe past and the present that might otherwise becompletely overlooked.

This morning, I'm gonna tell you briefly about the work undertakenby the national library, which made Trove possibleand our collaboration with partners around Australia, which is what makes it powerful.

It's these two elementswhich have born a tool which allows people around the country to discover these collectionsand to be inspired, but before I go any further, I would like to tell you a story and it's a story thatyou might know part of if you watched The Project last night.

It's a story that begins in a garage of a man named Ivan Owen.

A few years ago, Ivanbuilt an odd-looking, but functioning metal hand to wear actually as part of a costumefor a steampunk convention, so it didn't have lofty beginnings.

He decided to share hiswonderful creation online and this simple act setoff a chain of events which led to across-continental partnership with a man with whom he developed a series of prototypes forbody-powered prosthetic hands made from easy to find materials.

This was a passion project, which led to a mother contacting him to ask whether he could develop a smaller prosthetic hand forher five-year-old son, Liam.

Liam was born withoutfingers on his right hand and it's worth noting that themost conservative estimates suggest that each year worldwide, there are 50,000 children who are born without fingers or hands and for every prosthetic device received, thousands of other children go without because there are few designed for them and they grow out of them so quickly and they're enormously expensive to make and that was the problem which Owen and his partners set out to tackle and after extensive research,he found inspiration in a prosthetic hand developed in 1845 by an Adelaide-based dental surgeon.

The doctor built theprosthetic out of whalebone and metal pulleys for a gentlemannamed Corporal John Coles and that's the storythat you might have known up until, at least forthe first part of it, but there's something that you might not have thought about, whichis how did he find that hand? How did that hand become discoverable? It's not something that you would expect to be able to find quite easily and the answer begins with thefact that Coles's ancestors donated the prosthetic hand to The Health Museum of South Australia.

The Health Museum digitized the item and Trove harvested it inpartnership with the museum and that's how Ivan Owenfound the crucial details he needed for his design, in Trove.

It was from this design that Ivan and his partner drew inspiration.

The Coles hand was the key to it and it led to the eventual development of the first 3-D printable hand, so he put up, open sourced his designs so that anyone anywhere in the world can download a design and print a hand for themselves or someone in need.

A community has grownup around this design, interested in passionate individuals who continue to refineit and make it available.

At last count, there weremore than 2,000 hands that have been gifted to youngpeople across 45 countries and I'd just like to quickly show you.

This is an example of the hand.

The 3-D elements were printed by our friends next door at Questacon because they have a 3-D printer and it was assembled by the Trove team in one of our lunch hours because we wanted to show that we could.

(audience laughs) It has a place proud and centeractually, in our work area, but that's how easy and accessible it is.

This is the power of what an idea can have and what that inspiration can have.

It's the story of Coles's hand and there is one smalladdendum which is less known.

At one point, when this creation was starting to really takeoff and gain some coverage, someone completelyunconnected to the project tried to patent it andthose who are familiar with patent trolls know that this can end up working really quite badly and it did go to trial in the U.

S.

However, the fact thatthe historical design on which it is based appears in Trove and it's considered to be widely available as well as being in the public domain was enough to actually quash the claim really early in the process.

It's this openness and discoverability coupled with a distinctivecontent in Trove which makes the service special.

Trove is full of incrediblydiverse and unique materials, books and images, objects, maps, newspapers and webarchives, and much more.

It's drawn from collectionholders, big and small, across Australia and it includes large prestigious cultural institutions, such as those represented today, and niche organizations such as The Health Museum of South Australia and their incredibly unusual19th century prosthetic hand.

It also includes theGold Museum of Ballarat or recently, a fantastic collection of digitized fruit and vegetable boxes.

It was collected by a visualartist in New South Wales.

They are in Trove and they are fabulous.

Yes, all of these collectionsare available online outside of Trove, but arethey otherwise discoverable? Because we know in Trove that they are.

We consistently hear from our partners that Trove is one of their top, often the number one referral point for their online collections.

One of the reasons for this is through exposure and searchengines and optimization, which has historically pushed up Trove search results abovea lot of other things, but beyond that, Trove isa destination in of itself, a piece of infrastructurewhich has become embedded within the Australian research landscape.

It's sized some half1,000,000,000 resources now and its diversity mean that this is a choose your own adventure for Australians and this means that wecan't and don't want to predict what new things Troveusers will discover and make because the possibilitiesare just limitless.

The story of Coles's prosthetichand is just one example.

It is a great example oftechnological innovation, but is by no means the only type of connection which Trove has inspired.

The visual nature ofthe collections in Trove serves to nourishcreativity and imagination.

Indigenous singer-songwriter,Steven Pilgrim, who is known as being a leadingexponent of broom music, found he was inspired by a poemwritten by his late father.

He wasn't aware thathis father wrote poetry, much less that he had been published, but typing his father's name into Trove meant that he discovered something he might not have everknown, likely wouldn't have.

Pilgrim wrote the song, The Wanderer, based on his father's poem and made it the title track of his firstsolo album, released in 2013.

It's a piece of art from the Kimberleys, born from a creative connection which spans two generationsand more than 50 years.

It's also an exampleof the power of making text-based resources and artifacts, such as newspapers and gazettes fully tech searchable in Trove, which is where Pilgrim found the poems.

In recent years, researchershave mined these paper texts in pursuit of topics as legally diverse as Australia's legalhistory, climate change, and evolutionary linguistics in Australia.

These uses will multiplyas the corpus grows and more people developtools to use it in new ways.

Just last week, I heard a fantastic story from a scientist at the CSIRO, who is researching native species appropriate for re-population in a predator-proof sanctuarynorth of Canberra.

It's Mulligan's Flat foranyone local who knows it.

Mulligan's Flat.

Doctor Sue McIntyre andzoologist Mike Flenning confirmed through their research in Trove that at least one bilby was found 12 kilometers north of Goulburn.

Who knew we had bilbies? So, while it's not conclusive proof that there was a population,it's still useful evidence and it tells us something about the original biological environment.

Old newspapers have become a source for creation of new knowledge and art.

New possibilities arise with opportunities for research to interrogatethe wealth of data made available through digitized content, as well as the collectionswhich Trove brings together.

This is the potentialwhich is realized by Trove.

Access to collections which inspire and opportunities toreimagine them in new ways and then to finish, I'd justlike to highlight something from a survey weconducted a few years ago.

We surveyed people who use Trove to gain a broad pictureof their satisfaction.

There was one finding inparticular that inspires me.

90% of people agreed with the statement Trove has made me interested in learning and interested in discovering more.

Access isn't somethingthat can simply be measured in terms of makingsomething available online.

What the libary and itspartners have created is a space for discovery, reflection, learning, creativity, connection.

Trove is drawing in people and enabling them to do more with more.

Thank you.

(audience applauds) – First of all, wow.

(everyone laughs) Thank you for all our speakers.

It's just amazing stuffgoing on in your institutions and we'd like to justtake this opportunity, we can throw open to any questions.

Is a microphone coming around? – [Voiceover] Yep.

– [Voiceover] Hi, Isabelle from the copyright section here at the department.

It was Sarah, is that correct? I just wanted to share with you that for my history major at university, I had to do a projectof maps from 1,000 AD through to the 18th century and Trove was the only waythat made that possible for me, so a personal thanks for that.

(audience laughs) We also had some people doing the history of teapots in Australia, the history of the Queanbeyan prison, so a vast array ofmaterial available on Trove that made it possible forme to complete my degree.

Secondly, I just wanted to ask a question.

I know the NLA does geta huge amount of material and I was told by somebodyat the NLA when I had a visit that only about 50% ofthe material is accepted.

I just wanted to ask how doyou choose what you digitize or do you digitizeeverything that you can find? – How's that? Great.

When you talk about thetype of material accepted, do you mean accepted into the library or accepted into the digitization program? Okay, because long-standingwithin the library, there's been a very detailed process, which weighs up thesignificance of material, the interest which is expressed in it.

It does make a difference ifpeople come to us and say, "This material is of incredible "use for this particular purpose.

" Whether or not there's something similar otherwise available.

There are preservation concerns as well, so sometimes there are things which, if we ever take them out of the freezer, we're afraid they're gonna die instantly.

So, there is a complex range of factors, which they take into account.

In terms of newspapers,which is the question which we get asked a lot about because the newspapers are so popular, that's a discussion which has always been undertaken in collaborationwith, or in consultation with the state libraries around Australia.

The Australian newspapersdigitization program is a collaborativeeffort and it's actually the state libraries who select newspapers of significance and prioritizethem for that program.

– [Voiceover] Thank you.

– [Voiceover] Joanna Park fromthe Ministry for the Arts.

I just want to ask andthis is to you, Lynda, in regards to the Endeavorwreck off Rhode Island, is there any idea of possibly having some underwater archeologists linking up as part of future ideas for the project? – Yeah, can you hear me? Yeah, absolutely.

We've actually got an active program of working with RIMAPwhich is the Rhode Island's something something something.

In the U.

S, it's interesting because shipwrecks can become, wrecksites can be owned privately, so that's a bit of a challenge for us, but yeah, we've donetwo dives there, I think and getting ever closer, but certainly, with the technology that we've got on board the Endeavor replica, we could certainly doprograms with U.

S.

schools and that's something thatwe'll probably do later, but again, we need to deliver the program to across Australian, toschools across Australia first and then see what we can dobecause as Robert said as well, these were high, veryhigh-end NBN projects which were built to show that the NBN as Robert says, can be morethan just downloading movies, so the NBN roll out iskind of a bit patchy, so we just need to kind ofgo where the audience is.

Yes.

– [Voiceover] We do have onemore question from the floor, but if anyone's watching via streaming and wants to ask a question, [email protected]

Gov.

Au.

– [Voiceover] Thank you,wonderful presentations.

Really interesting.

What I'd like to know is how do you deal with the people in your physical locations who sometimes think that museums should be stale, dusty, you know,things that you watch? I ask this in, we had some people who came for a sporting event, some schoolchildren during the holidays and I came to a number ofthe cultural institutions and were loving going through and all the new things that were there, but they had a number of older generations who told them that theyneeded to keep down and you're not allowed to play with that and don't touch this and don't do that, so from really enjoyingit and being really high and absolutely loving it, that kind of all deflated and left, so how do you bridge this? – Well, from my perspective, it's all about exhibition design.

You've gotta design exhibitions to work with a range ofdifferent learning preferences and different personality types, people who want to engage,people who want to handle things, people who want to stand back and observe, people who want to read exhibitlabels and those who don't, so it really comes down to making sure your exhibit design caters to all of those different learning needs.

Having worked at Questacon,I know we had a limit of something like 27words on an exhibit label, which is, you know, it takes some skill to bring certain scientificconcepts down to 27 words, so I suppose, you know, then you may supplement that information with apps that allow people to get extra information or travel to other sitesfor more information.

These are the sort ofthings you have to address.

– I also think therestill is a very strong perception out there amongst older people sometimes about what a museum is.

I just did a research study last year and actually got people to domind maps of that word, museum and then that word, maritime and then putting them together.

That was even worse, so (laughs) it's kind of, therestill is this perception that museums are these kinds of places, but I think that's changing a lot and even when people were writing things on their piece of paper and I was saying, "Well, actually, you're just telling me "a different story about yourexperience at the museum.

" It was like, "Oh, we don'tactually mean your museum.

"We mean other museums," so it's kind of, it's a very interestingword that conjures up very strong feelings,but I do believe that things are changing andI think with technologies and being able to engage visitors more, particularly using socialplatforms and that kind of stuff that I think that thegeneration of the future, that won't happen, but yes,I've seen that before as well and it is deflating andupsetting, but you know.

It's just the way it is sometimes.

– Coming from a library,which is, you know, traditionally were seen,still by some people, as places where you will get shushed and there is an expectation that we will be doing the shushing.

I think it's reallyabout, as you were saying, trying to balance the old and the new.

I think there is still acertain validity around the idea that libraries as well asmuseums can be places for contemplation and reflectionand it's about creating different spaces which caterto those different people and I think that you cansee that in a lot of places.

You will have areas which are designed and catered to younger audiences and they can use the 27 word labels and can be quite noised andcan be quite interactive and other places where people can quietly engage with objects.

A marriage of the old and the new.

– There's also a bit of a myth around digital technologies and young people, so I was interviewing 14-year-old boys a couple of years agoin a dinosaur exhibition and we'd given them a task.

"Come up with all the questionsyou've got about dinosaurs," and you can imagine what they were.

How do dinosaurs have sex? (audience laughs)Mostly and then when I was inthere interviewing them.

I was like, "Well, how are yougoing with your questions?" They're going, "Aw, miss,you know that's fine.

"We're having a great time.

"We're seeing some really good objects.

" It wasn't an interactiveexperience as such.

It was a social experience for them, looking at cool objects and they said, "Oh, we'll just Googleit when we get home.

" That was, that's kind of the generation that we're dealing with now and just another anecdote.

I've done many terrible thingsas an audience researcher, but causing a divorce I didn'tthink would be in my remit, but I was interviewing a couple and we were talking aboutdigital interactions for a new experience that we were building and the mother was like, "No screen time.

"I take the kids to a museumto get away from that.

" Whereas the father'slike, "Oh no, absolutely.

"We need a trail, we need this.

" They were really loggerheads and it's a very gendered conversation and again, as an audience researcher, I've seen many things, but this is quite a genderedconversation about digital because I see that mums and females are wanting that hands-on real experience for want of a better term and males are often a bitmore wanting that digital, so it's kind of a, it'sa bit of a balancing act, but it always comes back to the audience and their needs and what,how best to cater for those.

– [Voiceover] I think weactually got a question via Twitter from Auckland,New Zealand, I believe.

They would like to knowfor the national museum, oh my gosh, he's got acouple questions now.

How do you choose which overseasschools connect virtually? Yeah, is there a strategy? – Well, you're just gratefulif you can get them, so I suppose you use every available avenue to get those schools.

In this instance, we approachedTe Papa museum in Wellington to see if they had some schools that they already use as audiences that we could make contact with.

I think you just gotta have fingers going into a whole range of organizations that might be able torefer you to those schools.

Sometimes, we alsomaintain a list of schools or communities that havegot in touch with us as a result of mediacoverage or just on SPEC so we can follow them,but in the Melbourne Cup New Zealand example, wespecifically wanted a school in the little town of Timaruwhere Phillip was born and we had troublefinding a school in Timaru even though we were referred to a couple and when we did the event, we didn't have the school from Timaru and then the local newspapergot very, very angry about this and it was a whole campaignthat we'd ignored Timaru.

It had national coverage.

(audience groans) It was a real thing, so you have to handle these sort of situations very carefully, particularly when there's international sensibilities at risk.

– [Voiceover] Probably gottime for one more question if we've got one, terrific.

– [Voiceover] Hi, Penny fromthe Ministry for the Arts.

My question is that youguys all spoke about some really fantastic ways that you're bringing the museums alive digitally and enhancing broad access to it, both nationally and internationally.

Going forward, how do yousee the lay of the land, in terms of the relationshipbetween the physical museums and the physicalcollections and the digital? Do the two work complimentary? Or will one ultimately replace the other? – In my view, they willforever be connected.

The fascinating thingabout the Coles hand story is that we only learned about it because Ivan Owen got in contact with us because he wanted us to facilitate access to the original object for the study.

These digital resources are based upon real items which you can learn a lot from in terms of their digital representation, but in some instances, thereis no replacement for it and they can't be disconnected.

– Yes, I agree with that.

The object is paramount, the story that goes with the object.

In the national museum'scase, we don't collect objects just as representativeexamples of an object.

They have to have a storyspecifically associated with them.

They need to be owned by someone, used by someone, and we need to be able to fill out thestory of that object, so the object is always goingto be paramount and important, but the way we displayand share that object will always be changing, I imagine and there's some, well, the CSIRO is doing a lot of 3-D imagingof objects at the moment.

They're trialing new technologies for extremely fine 3-D imaging, so it's quite possible thatthese objects that we have will be accessible throughthe web in a 3-D format as is being done in anumber of institutions and being able to bemanipulated in a 3-D sort of way and perhaps also, viewedthrough virtual reality goggles, so that objects aren't,you're in the museum, you've got a museum plinth in front of you with nothing on it, but youcan call up objects virtually, but the object retains itsidentity and importance, I think.

– Yeah, I don't think it'sgonna be a survivor situation, like who're you gonna vote off the island? It will be a complimentary theme, but at the same time, I mean, again, being a national museum,it's not based in Canberra and having a national remit and an international remit to some degree.

Obviously, digital is gonna be important and, I mean, sometimes aphysical experience is horrible.

I mean, go and see the Mona Lisa.

You're not having agreat experience there.

You're probably having abetter experience online than you would at that physical place, so I think it's a very exciting time for educators and for museums because there's so muchthat we could be doing.

It's just a matter of now figuring out, well, what's the bestplatforms to do that on and it's getting much cheaper and easier, so yeah, it's gonna be interesting.

– Well, thank you very much.

I didn't appreciate we hadan international audience, but (laughs) to our friendsin New Zealand, kia ora.

So, thank you for yourpresentations today.

Clearly, we're only scratching the surface and we could spend so muchlonger discussing all of this.

Really fantastic work being carried out in our national cultural institutions and the many benefits that flow from that.

So, I thank you all foryour attendance here today and online and if we're gonna steal a line from a great Australian,do yourself a favor and visit a national culturalinstitution this weekend or if you can't get therein person, do it online.

You won't be disappointed.

Thank you very much.

(audience applauds).

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